In 1783, Jacques Etienne Montgolfier launched a duck, a sheep and a rooster aboard a hot-air balloon at Versailles in France.
In 1796, President George Washington's farewell address was published. In it, America's first chief executive advised, "Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cultivate peace and harmony with all."
In 1881, the 20th president of the United States, James A. Garfield, died 2½ months after being shot by Charles Guiteau; Chester Alan Arthur became president.
In 1934, Bruno Hauptmann was arrested in New York and charged with the kidnap-murder of 20-month-old Charles A. Lindbergh Jr.
In 1986, federal health officials announced that the experimental drug AZT would be made available to thousands of AIDS patients.
In 1995, The New York Times and The Washington Post published the manifesto of Unabomber Ted Kaczynski, which proved instrumental in identifying and capturing him.
In 2001, The Pentagon ordered dozens of advanced aircraft to the Persian Gulf region as the hour of military retaliation for deadly terrorist attacks on Sept. 11 drew closer.
In 2008, struggling to stave off financial catastrophe, the Bush administration laid out a radical bailout plan calling for a takeover of a half-trillion dollars or more in worthless mortgages and other bad debt held by tottering institutions. Relieved investors sent stocks soaring on Wall Street and around the globe.
In 2010, The BP oil well at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico was declared "effectively dead" by retired Coast Guard Adm. Thad Allen, the government's point man on the blowout disaster, after it was sealed with a permanent cement plug. On the final day of his four-day visit to Britain, Pope Benedict XVI celebrated Mass to beatify Cardinal John Henry Newman, the 19th century Anglican convert.
In 2015, Pope Francis, arriving in Havana, hailed détente between Cuba and the United States as a model of reconciliation for the world as he launched a 10-day tour of the former Cold War foes. President Barack Obama paid tribute to Black women for their role in helping shape American democracy as he delivered the keynote address to the Congressional Black Caucus Foundation's annual awards dinner. Jackie Collins, 77, the bestselling author of dozens of novels including "Hollywood Wives," died in Los Angeles.
In 2019, Under orders from the Trump administration, the intelligence community's inspector general refused to tell members of a House panel what was in a whistleblower's complaint about a private conversation between President Donald Trump and Ukraine's president. Trump began responding to published reports about the phone call, tweeting that he would never "say something inappropriate with a foreign leader while on such a potentially 'heavily populated' call," and that he would only "do what is right anyway." As the U.S. and Saudi Arabia considered a response to a drone-and-missile strike on the Saudi oil industry, Iran's top diplomat warned that an attack by either country would bring "all-out war." New York Yankees pitcher Domingo Germán was put on administrative leave as Major League Baseball investigated an alleged domestic violence incident involving his girlfriend. The pitcher would miss the rest of the season as part of a suspension that would also cover all of the abbreviated 2020 season.
Compiled by Melissa Hall
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