On July 31, 1777, during the Revolutionary War, the Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French nobleman, was made a major-general in the American Continental Army.

In 1715, a fleet of Spanish ships carrying gold, silver and jewelry sank during a hurricane off the east Florida coast; of some 2,500 crew members, more than 1,000 died.

In 1954, Pakistan’s K2 was conquered as two members of an Italian expedition reached the summit.

In 1971, Apollo 15 crew members David Scott and James Irwin became the first astronauts to use a lunar rover on the surface of the moon.

In 2014, the death toll from the worst recorded Ebola outbreak in history surpassed 700 in West Africa.

The Associated Press

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